T he American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines Diabetes as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia or increased level of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.





Diabetes stands at the demarcation of being genetic and non-genetic. However, its prevalence is worldwide and is increasing. Speaking about the WHO data of 2014, 8.5% of the population of the world above 18 years age is affected. It has surged from 4.7% in 1980.



The most understood mechanism of diabetic initiation is the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells (Type I diabetes). Insulin resistance (Type II diabetes), as well as metabolic disorder and abnormalities, is also known to provoke the disease. Combination of both the processes has also been observed. However, the primary manifestation is hyperglycemia and insulin deprivation in tissues.



There have been practiced a variety of processes for type I diabetes, which have been treated in most of the cases. However, the questions are open for type II diabetes in the scientific arena.



Scientists have obtained promising results in the treatment of type II diabetes by stem cell therapy combined with drug therapy. Insulin resistance by the body could hardly be treated by repopulating the pancreatic β-cells alone. Stem cell therapy combined with drugs metformin (Glucophage), and sitagliptin (Januvia) have promised the possibility in the mouse experiments.



The stem cells used for the treatment were the embryonic stem cells. The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), although are possible candidates, their unpredictability and complexity have hindered from their usage.



Focusing researches on the combined therapy can yield results to cure diabetes and possibly the prediction of WHO that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030 be nullified.









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